Echo-endoscopy (EE), also known as the Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) and Endosonography (ES), is a test that combines endoscopic and ultrasound images in order to evaluate lesions located on and around the walls of the gastrointestinal tract.

Although it was described more than 20 years ago, both its diagnostic and therapeutic indications remain little known to the majority of general doctors or specialists, including our own, where the test is still considered to be only useful for evaluating the lesions on gastric walls that are on one of the five ultrasonic layers.

More and more publications about echo-endoscopy are being released describing new indications for this diagnostic-therapeutic procedure and ratifying the previously described ones, converting it into an essential technique for a Digestive System Service. It is currently a common test in many specialized centres all over the world.

The current trend is moving from Diagnostic Echo-endoscopy to Therapeutic Echo-endoscopy. Many papers were presented at the Congress of the American Gastroenterology Association, where echo-endoscopy was used for different applications such as guiding minimally invasive surgeries, the taking of samples with PAAF at all levels, biological therapy applications and even, in the future, regarding the work it would have in cardiovascular treatments. This shows that there is impressive potential for this procedure and gastroenterologists must further familiarize themselves with its indications and possible therapeutic applications.