Different kinds of malignant tumours can develop in the stomach, among which are adenocarcinoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), and carcinoids.
The most frequent symptoms are usually abdominal pain, early satiety, postprandial heaviness, loss of appetite, nausea, flatulence, weight loss; these symptoms are difficult to differentiate from symptoms of other benign stomach pathologies.
Gastroscopy is the technique of choice for the diagnosis of these lesions, also allowing the medical professional to take biopsies for the histological study. A loco-regional extension and remote study using endoscopic or echoendoscopic ultrasound and/or computerized tomography (CT) would also be required in most cases.
The most frequent kind of tumour is the adenocarcinoma which represents 90% of all malignant gastric tumours.
The risk factors for this kind of tumour include being male, over 50 years of age, the ingestion of smoked foods, tobacco, a family history of gastric cancer, and a Helicobacter Pylori infection.
Depending of the state of the tumour, different curative or palliative treatments will be applied.
The endoscopic treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma is applicable to well differentiated or moderately differentiated tumours with limited invasion of the mucosa or submucosa.
However, in the majority of cases where the tumour is diagnosed in more advanced stages, surgery (with or without chemotherapy) is the only applicable curative treatment (total or subtotal gastrectomy).
If any of the aforementioned symptoms are detected, it is very important to consult a specialist to determine the causes and select the best treatment, as well as to be made aware of the appropriate control and monitoring in each individual case.